Although OPEC data showed global oil demand grew by a healthy 5.3 percent year-on-year in Q1 2022, the agency recently revised down full year 2022 oil demand growth by 12 percent. It is also worth highlighting that OPEC’s current outlook on oil demand is based not only on the assumption that armed conflict in Ukraine does not escalate, but that it eases in the second half of the year.
Global oil demand grew by a healthy 6 percent year-on-year, or 5.6 million barrels per day (mbpd) last year, to an average of 96.6 mbpd. Looking ahead, whilst near-term Omicron related risks remain, so far, the response from governments around the world to surging cases have not been as severe as previous variants. Overall in full year 2022, oil demand is expected to rise by 4 percent year-on-year, to an all time high of 100.8 mbpd.
Brent oil prices averaged $74 per barrel (pb) during Q3 2021, up 7 percent quarter-on-quarter, and 71 percent over the same period last year. Brent oil’s rally has continued into Q4, with the benchmark rising a further 10 percent over September levels. Whilst some supply issues in the US Gulf have contributed to the uplift in prices over the last couple of months, the rally has mainly been a result of rising oil demand.
According to OPEC data, Q2 2021 oil demand rose by 3 percent quarter-on-quarter and a sizable 14 percent year-on-year. The outlook for the remainder of the year is consistent with previous estimates, with oil demand expected to keep growing quarter-on-quarter in Q3 and Q4 2021. Overall, only transportation fuels (jet fuel and gasoline) are showing sizable differences in demand when compared to pre-pandemic levels.
The recovery in global oil demand reversed course during the first quarter of 2021, with OPEC’s monthly oil market report showing declines of 780 thousand barrels per day (tbpd) or -0.8 percent quarter-on-quarter in Q1. Looking ahead, according to OPEC forecasts, oil demand will resume rising on a quarterly basis during the rest of the year, but still end up 3.5 percent lower than pre-Covid-19 levels by the end of 2021.